Learn About Mental Health Conditions

Mental health disorders impact one’s mood, thoughts and behaviour, and are characterised by ongoing symptoms that affect one’s daily life.

Types of Mental Health Conditions

Having knowledge of mental health conditions can be particularly empowering, providing individuals with increased awareness and understanding of why individuals affected may be acting a certain way, and the unique issues they may be facing. There are over 200 types of mental illnesses of varying severity, with symptoms often overlapping, and it is vital that individuals consult a healthcare professional for a formal diagnosis to obtain access to the right support and treatment options.

Anxiety Disorders

These mental health conditions are amongst the most common. They are characterised by persistent feelings of anxiety, worry and fear, which are out of proportion to the danger posed by a situation, person or object. There are a number of conditions included in this category, ranging from generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety, agoraphobia, panic disorder and many others.

Bipolar Disorders

These disorders usually cause mood swings that include emotional highs and lows, significantly affecting individuals’ thoughts and behaviour. They usually require long-term management through the right form(s) of treatment in order to reduce the frequency and severity of mood episodes.

Depressive Disorders

Depressive disorders are characterised by constant feelings of sadness, hopelessness and apathy, which severely impact one’s daily life. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), perinatal depression, major depression and psychotic depression are among the different types of depressive disorders.

Disruptive, Impulse-Control and Conduct Disorders

These disorders are linked to issues in controlling one’s behaviour or specific impulses, often leading to dangerous conduct, whether to one’s safety or to that of others. These include kleptomania, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and many others.

Dissociative Disorders 

Dissociative disorders involve feeling disconnected from reality and one’s one mind. They involve a loss of connection between thoughts, memories, emotions, and perceptions. These include dissociative identity disorder, depersonalisation or derealisation.

Eating Disorders 

Eating disorders affect both one’s mental and physical health. These conditions include issues in how individuals perceive food and food consumption as well as one’s weight and physical appearance. Some of the most common types include anorexia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Without treatment, some of these conditions can have severe repercussions on one’s mental and physical health and even lead to death.

Gender Dysphoria 

Gender dysphoria occurs when an individual feels their biological sex does not match their gender identity, leading to significant distress.

Neurodevelopmental Disorders

These disorders begin to present themselves during childhood, altering neurological development and brain function. Amongst these are communication disorders, autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, learning disabilities, and impairments in vision and hearing.

Obsessive-compulsive Disorders 

These personality disorders involve obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviour, with people experiencing uncontrollable and recurring intrusive thoughts, images or urges.

Schizophrenia and Psychotic Disorders

Psychotic disorders, the most common of which is schizophrenia, cause abnormal thinking and perceptions, often causing individuals to be out of touch with reality. Symptoms include hallucinations and delusions. In serious cases, such as when individuals affected are a danger to themselves or others, hospitalisation may be required.

Sleep Disorders 

Sleep disorders disturb normal sleep patterns, impacting both mental and physical health and therefore having the potential to severely affect one’s daily life. These include insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea, hypersomnia and others.

Somatic Disorders 

These disorders present themselves through external physical symptoms which cannot be justified through a medical diagnosis. These symptoms cannot be consciously explained by the individual experiencing them and are often caused by stress or trauma. Some common presentations include paralysis of limbs, fainting or pseudo-seizures. Somatic disorders can include body dysmorphic disorder, hypochondriasis, conversion disorder, pain disorder and others.

Substance-related Disorders 

These disorders are caused by substance use or abuse, particularly when this behaviour leads to impairment or distress. They include both substance use disorders such as addiction and dependence and substance-induced disorders such as intoxication, withdrawal, and other substance-related mental health conditions.

Trauma-related Disorders 

Trauma-related disorders are triggered by experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event. These disorders include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, and adjustment disorders. Symptoms often involve reliving the trauma, avoidance of reminders, negative changes in thoughts and mood, and heightened reactivity.

Struggling with Mental Health

If you or someone you know is struggling with a mental health condition or suicidal thoughts and is in need of immediate help, there are resources available:

Need more in-depth information on different mental health conditions